Monday’s QPR quiz

first_imgWallow in the misery of QPR’s dismal results by recalling past unhappy memories and seeing how many of these five crisis-related questions you can answer correctly.[wp-simple-survey-69]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 Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more

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Mark Davis’ plan to move Raiders to San Francisco backfired

first_imgCLICK HERE if you are having a problem viewing the photos on a mobile deviceThe Raiders’ dreams of a San Francisco sojourn appear dead.The only question now is if team owner Mark Davis swallows his pride and has his team play the 2019 season at Levi’s Stadium — home of the 49ers — or the Oakland-Alameda County Coliseum, or if he abruptly pulls his team out of the region altogether.Amid public opposition from prominent San Francisco politicians — including Mayor London Breed — and …last_img

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SA-born scientist wins Nobel Prize

first_img8 October 2002South African born and educated molecular biologist Sydney Brenner and two of his colleagues have been awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their research into the genetic development of organs and the “programmed death’ or “suicide’ of cells.Brenner, Sir John Sulston of the UK and Robert Horvitz of the US will share the US$1-million prize for identifying the key genes that regulate the formation of organs and the controlled elimination of old cells in a worm approximately 1mm long – and showing that corresponding genes exist in higher species, including humans.Their discoveries “are important for medical research and have shed new light on the pathogenesis of many diseases’, the Nobel Foundation said on its web site.Brenner is the fourth South African born or raised scientist to win a Nobel prize, after CAT scan co-inventor Allan Cormack, Max Theiler for his research on yellow fever, and Aaron Klug for his research on macromolecules.It was Brenner, widely regarded as a giant in molecular biology, who put the worm or nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on the scientific map, after realising in the 1960s that fundamental questions about cell differentiation and organ development were difficult to tackle in higher animals.C. elegans, on the other hand, provided the perfect subject for research: transparent and fast-growing, its cell division could be directly observed under the microscope; multicellular yet simpler than mammals, its genetic secrets were relatively accessible and at the same time applicable to more complex species.Brenner provided the basis for the award-winning research in a 1974 publication in which he broke new ground by demonstrating that specific gene mutations could be chemically induced in the worm’s genome. Different mutations, he showed, could be linked to specific genes and specific effects on the worm’s organ development.“This combination of genetic analysis and visualisation of cell divisions observed under the microscope initiated the discoveries that are awarded by this year’s Nobel Prize’, the Foundation said.The knowledge of programmed cell death that Brenner, Sulston and Horvitz arrived at has helped the scientific community to understand how some viruses and bacteria are able to invade our cells, and how abnormal (either excessive or reduced) cell death plays a part in a number of diseases, including Aids, stroke and cancer.Today, for example, many cancer treatment strategies are based on the stimulation of the body’s cellular “suicide programme’. According to the Foundation, further exploration is called for to “reach a more refined manner to induce cell death in cancer cells’.Germiston boy, Wits studentBrenner was born in Germiston, South Africa on 13 January 1927, and studied medicine and science at the University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg before going to Oxford, where he received a D.Phil in chemistry in 1952.After a brief return to South Africa he returned to England, spending the bulk of his 50-year career in Cambridge, where he directed the Laboratory of Molecular Biology.He retired in 1992 – but came out of retirement four years later to become director of science at the Molecular Sciences Institute, a private research institute in Berkeley, California. He retired from this job at the end of 2000, and almost immediately took up an offer to become a distinguished research professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, where he now lives.“I don’t want to retire to play golf. Science is one’s hobby and one’s work and one’s pleasure”, Brenner is quoted as saying on the Beyond the Human Genome Project page of the Harvey Mudd College web site.Brenner is best known for his work in the 1960s, which established the existence of messenger RNA, which transmits information from DNA to proteins. That discovery won him the prestigious Lasker Award in 1971 for basic medical research.More recently, he has been part of a team studying vertebrate genome evolution using the Japanese puffer fish. Brenner won a second Lasker award in 2000 for work in medical sciences, honouring his achievements over a lifetime. “The first one was for science”, Brenner commented at the time. “The next one was for surviving.”SouthAfrica.info reporter Want to use this article in your publication or on your website?See: Using SAinfo materiallast_img read more

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Advances in Windows

first_imgWindows have a huge impact on the energy use of our homes. Fortunately, there have been dramatic advances in window technology over the past thirty years. This column will take a look at factors that affect the energy performance of windows.Multiple panes of glass. A single layer of glass—and the layers of relatively still air on both sides of it—insulate to about R-1. If we add a second pane of glass ( “glazing” in industry parlance) separated by an air space, we increase the insulating value to between R-1.75 and R-2. We can do this by adding a storm window or by using two layers of glass in the prime window. Two layers of glass with a sealed air space between them is referred to as an “insulated glazing unit,” and most windows sold in the U.S. today have such glazing. Providing three layers of glass or two layers of glass and a suspended plastic film boosts performance further by creating two layers of trapped air.Thickness of the air space. Older insulated glass units often have just a quarter-inch air space. If that air space is increased to a half inch, the insulating performance of the window, measured at the center of the glass panel, increases about 15%. If the spacing is too wide, though, the air can form convection loops and the insulating performance drops a bit. Assuming air fills the space in the sealed insulated glazing unit, the optimal thickness of the air space is between ½ inch and 1 inch. We’ll see that if a gas other than air fills that space, the optimal thickness may differ.Low-emissivity coatings. In the mid-1970s scientists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology figured out that a very thin metallic coating on a layer of glass or plastic film would block the escape of radiant heat. These coatings allow shortwave length light to pass through (so we can see through them just fine), but they block longer wavelength heat radiation. Technically, they reduce the emittance of radiant heat—thus the name, low-emissivity or low-e. For windows sold in our climate, low-e coatings have become fairly standard.Low-e coatings can be deposited on the glass (referred to as soft-coat low-e), or they can be incorporated into the surface of the glass when the glass is still molten (referred to as hard-coat or pyrolytic low-e). In general soft-coat low-e adds more R-value than hard-coat low-e, but it also blocks more solar gain, so may not be the best choice for south-facing windows when you want to benefit from passive solar heating—more about that in a future column.Assuming a half-inch air space, adding a layer of soft-coat low-e to one of the panes of glass boosts the energy performance (measured at the center of the window) by over 50%.Low-conductivity gas fill. Some gasses have lower conductivity than air, so replacing the air in a sealed insulated glazing unit with one of these low-conductivity gas fills can boost insulating performance. The most common gas-fill is argon, though krypton is even better and is used in higher-performance windows. With krypton, the optimal thickness is about a quarter-inch.Improved edge spacers. In an insulated glazing unit, the panes of glass are held apart by a continue glazing spacer—usually a hollow channel of aluminum. Because aluminum is highly conductive, this spacer creates a “thermal bridge,” reducing the overall insulating performance of the window—and sometimes causing condensation at the window edges (because the inner glass surface will be colder there). There are some alternative “warm-edge” spacers on the market made of thinner-walled stainless steel channel, silicone, or rubber.Frame materials. Finally, some window frame materials insulate better than others. Wood provides about R-1 per inch. Hollow fiberglass or vinyl channel that is insulated with fiberglass or foam insulation can boost the insulating performance of the entire window unit (glazing plus frame). The better the energy performance of the glazing, the more significant the heat flow through the frames. This is also why—with high-performance glazings—windows with large undivided glazing units perform better than windows with lots of small panes of glass; the latter have a higher proportion of framing.By combining the best of these glazing and frame technologies, center-of-glass insulating values can be increased up to R-8 or even higher and whole-unit R-values (accounting for heat loss through the frames) can reach R-5 or higher. Only a few U.S. manufacturers provide such top-performing windows. Canadian window manufacturers are much more focused on energy performance.last_img read more

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